The FCC yesterday released a Notice of Inquiry, formally beginning its Quadrennial Review of the Multiple Ownership Rules.  While the FCC informally began the process of the Congressionally-mandated review of the ownership rules last November through a series of informational panels and workshops, the Notice of Inquiry ("NOI") provides the first formal opportunity for the public to comment on the ownership rules.  The FCC will take the comments that it receives in response to the NOI, and formulate some more specific proposals on how it plans to change the current rules (if at all), which will then be released for additional comments in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.  The NOI is a broad-ranging document that gives little indication of the FCC’s final direction in this proceeding – though it does go into detail as to how the media marketplace has changed in recent years, citing declining advertising revenues, and more media outlets providing competition to broadcasters for both audience and advertising revenues.   The NOI posed dozens of detailed questions asking how the Commission should assess the various aspects of the ownership rules, and what impact the changes in the media marketplace should have on its consideration of rule changes.

The FCC is concerned with all aspects of its media ownership rules.  Thus, it sets out that it will explore the following rules:

  • The Local Television Ownership cap, which limits owners to two stations in markets where there are at least 8 competing television owners and operators, and which forbids combinations of the top 4 stations in any market.  Television operators, particularly in smaller markets, have been urging the Commission to allow more consolidation in those markets so that stations can provide better service to their communities.  They argue that the current limits preclude small market consolidation, which is most needed in these markets where the costs of operation are not significantly lower than in large markets, but where revenue opportunities are far more limited.
  • The Local radio ownership caps, that currently limit owners to 8 stations in the largest markets, no more than 5 of which can be in any single service (i.e. AM or FM).  Some radio owners contend that these limits no longer make sense given the competition for audio listening from so many sources (including satellite and Internet radio, who can provide unlimited formats in any market).  Other issues include whether AM and FM still need to be treated separately, and even whether AM should be counted to the same degree as FM in a multiple ownership analysis.
  • The Newspaper-Broadcast cross-ownership rule, that forbids cross-ownership of broadcast stations and daily newspapers without a waiver – which, as the result of changes in the cross-ownership rules in 2007, will be granted on a more liberal basis, but only in the top 20 markets.  Given the economic state of the newspaper industry, many seek the repeal of this rule in its entirety. As we have written before, will the newspaper cross-ownership rule outlive the newspaper?
  • The Radio-Television cross-ownership rule, which limits the number of radio and television stations that can be owned by a single party in a single market
  • The Dual Network Rule, that prohibits the common ownership of any of the top 4 television networks.

Each of these rules is up for review, and numerous questions have been asked, and issues identified, for consideration in this proceeding. 


Continue Reading FCC Issues Multiple Ownership Notice of Inquiry – Formally Begins Quadrennial Review With Lots of Questions To Assess the Impact of Media Consolidation

We recently wrote about the controversy before the FCC about Arbitron‘s roll-out of the Portable People Meter ("PPM").  A number of broadcast groups, particularly those who target minority audiences with their programming, have requested that the FCC hold a hearing as to whether the introduction of the PPM in a number of major radio markets should be allowed, arguing that it has the potential to discriminate against minority audiences and to decrease diversity in the media.  Arbitron and other broadcast groups have opposed the initiation of that proceeding, arguing that the regulation of a ratings service exceeds the FCC’s regulatory authority.  Now, the opponents of the PPM have sough relief from a number of state and local governments, with the Attorneys General of New York and New Jersey filing suit to prevent the initiation of service by Arbitron.  The office of New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo issued this Press Release, and that of New Jersey Attorney General Anne Milgram issued this Release, citing the reasons for the suit.  Both claim that the use of PPM technology, which they claim has methodological flaws, is a deceptive trade practice by a monopoly provider of services.  The NJ suit goes on to claim that the disparate effect of the claimed inaccurate measurements on minority and ethnic stations violated the state’s anti-discrimination laws.  Arbitron of course denies these claims.

The lawsuits have received substantial coverage in both the popular and trade press.  Today’s Washington Post has an article discussing the controversy.  Citing an interview with Alfred Liggins of Radio One, a leading radio group targeting African American listeners, the article suggests that the PPM may take a while for stations to adapt to, but once they do, even minority-targeted stations can obtain valuable programming feedback from the new methodology, as it allows feedback as the ratings information in days rather than the months that that the current diary system requires.  This rapid feedback allows broadcasters to make programming adjustments that will allow them to maintain or improve their ratings position.  Mark Ramsey’s Hear 2.0 blog looks at some anomalies in the PPM in specific demographics, but in another post concludes that despite whatever shortcomings the PPM may have, the industry needs to work with Arbitron on insuring that the PPM works – as an automated system is inherently more reliable than the diary method that relies on listeners recalling and accurately writing down their radio listening.


Continue Reading NY and NJ State Attorneys General Sue to Stop Roll Out of PPM – What’s A Station to Do?

As we wrote earlier this week, the FCC is to consider at its meeting next Tuesday a Report on the results of its "Localism" proceeding, and a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking seeking public comment on the findings contained in the Report.  From rumors going around Washington today, that Notice may ask for comments on tentative findings that would roll back of much of the broadcast deregulation of the last 25 years.   Rumors are that the Commission will be issuing "tentative conclusions" determining that the FCC should re-impose specific ascertainment requirements of some sort (requiring that broadcasters regularly meet with specific types of community leaders to get their input on station programming).  Also, the Commission will tentatively conclude that there should be quantitative programming requirements – that each station do a specific amount of local programming and perhaps specific amounts of news, public affairs other types of programs each week. If a licensee does not meet the requirements, the station’s license renewal application would not be granted routinely by the FCC’s staff, but instead would be subject to an additional level of scrutiny by the full Commission. The Commission is also apparently proposing that it return to the old rules that all stations have a manned main studio during all hours of operation. There is reportedly also a proposal that stations report to the FCC about how they decide what music they play.

Staring in the early 1980s, the FCC did away with many of the specific, detailed programming requirements that had previously bound broadcasters.  These requirements were quite burdensome, especially for small stations and stations in small markets with limited staffs.  Rather than spending their time on broadcast operations, station staff had to make sure that their operations met programming standards imposed from Washington, dictating the government’s ideas of what was good for the station’s audience, even if the station might feel, because of its format or the demographics of its audience that a particular type of programming did not serve the needs of its community.  In the mid-1980s, the FCC concluded that these rules were no longer necessary, as it was concluded that there was enough media diversity that the marketplace would dictate that broadcasters serve their audiences with appropriate content that met the needs of that audience as, if they did not, some other broadcaster would.  The economic incentive of the fear of the loss of audience to a competitor who better served the public was deemed enough to insure that the broadcaster acted responsibly.
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Continue Reading Moving Forward Back to 1980 – The FCC Set to Conclude that Specific Public Interest Obigations are Required for Broadcasters