The American Issues Project has recently started running a controversial new television ad attacking Barrack Obama for his connections to former Weather Underground figure William Ayers. The text of the ad is reported here. While reportedly some cable outlets (including Fox News) have refused to air the ad, numerous broadcast stations are also wondering what the legal implications of running the ad may be. We have already seen many other attack ads being run by third-party groups – including political parties, long-standing activist groups like Move On.org, as well as from new organizations like American Issues Project which have seemingly been formed recently. As the use of such ads will no doubt increase as we get closer to the November election, it is important that broadcasters understand the issues that may arise in connection with such ads under various laws dealing with political broadcasting. Legal issues that must be considered arise not only under FCC rules, but also potentially in civil courts for liability that may arise from the content of the ad. Broadcast stations are under no obligation to run ads by third party groups, and stations have a full right to reject those ads based on their content. This is in contrast to ads by Federal candidates, who have a right of reasonable access to all broadcast stations, and whose ads cannot be censored by the stations. As a candidate’s ad cannot be censored, the station has no liability for its contents. In contrast, as the station has the full discretion as to whether or not it will run a third-party ad, it could have liability for defamation or other liabilities that might arise from the content of such ads that it decides to accept and put on the air.
The standards for proving defamation (libel and slander) of a public figure are high, but if the ad does contain some clearly false statements, the standard could in fact be met. Basically, to have liability, the station needs to run an ad containing a false statement either knowing that the ad is untrue or with "reckless disregard" for the truthfulness of the statements made. This is referred to as the "malice standard." Essentially, once a station is put on notice that the ad may be untrue (usually by a letter from the candidate being attacked, or from their lawyers), the station needs to do their own fact checking to satisfy themselves that there is a basis for the claims made or, theoretically, the station could itself be subject to liability for defamation if the claims prove to be untrue. A few years ago, some TV stations in Texas ended up having to pay a candidate because they ran an ad by an attack group that was shown to contain false statements, and the ad was run even after the candidate complained that the statements were untrue. These determinations are often difficult to make as the ad’s creators usually have hundreds of pages of documentation that they say supports their claims, while the person being attacked usually has documentation to refute the claims. Thus, the determination as to whether or not to run the ad is a decision that each station needs to make after consultation with their lawyers, and after careful review of the spot and the backing documentation.
The stations also need to comply with FCC rules. First, the stations need to make sure that the ad has the required sponsorship identification identifying the true sponsor of the ad, in writing for at least 4 seconds at 4% of screen height. Under FEC rules, there must also be a verbal identification of the sponsor. In addition, the station needs to comply with all of the public file requirements.
For any request to a station by a third-party group asking to buy ads dealing with Federal candidates, the station’s public file should contain the following information about each request:
1) The name of the group sponsoring the ad
2) Its principal officers or its directors
3) Whether the request to buy time was accepted or rejected
4) If the schedule was accepted, the date and approximate time the spots will run
5) The class of time purchased
6) The rate charged
7) The name of the candidate to which the ad refers
8) After the spots have run, the exact time the spots ran
More information about these rules and the other laws dealing with political broadcasting issues for broadcast stations can be found in our Political Broadcasting Guide.