2007 - the year of the television actor who decides to become a Presidential candidate. We've already written about the issues under the FCC's political broadcasting rules, particularly the equal opportunity doctrine, with the candidacy of Law and Order's Fred Thompson, resulting in NBC replacing him on as the on-air District Attorney of New York City. Now, Comedy Central television host Stephen Colbert has announced his candidacy for the nomination for President - albeit only as a native son in his home state of South Carolina. While some cynical observers might conclude that the Colbert action is only a bid to get publicity and press for his new book (just think of all the publicity that he's getting from this blog entry - Stephen, we want our commission on all the books you sell because of the promotion you get here), his candidacy does present a useful illustration of a number of issues that arise for broadcasters and other FCC regulatees subject to the political broadcasting rules - particularly issues that arise when a station on-air employee runs for political office. Questions that are raised include when a employee becomes a legally qualified candidate, does the candidate's appearance on a bona fide news interview program exempt the station from equal opportunities obligations, and the amount and kind of time that is due to opposing candidates should they request equal time.
First, the question of a "legally qualified candidate." This is important as the on-air appearance of a planned candidate does not give rise to equal time until that individual becomes a "legally qualified candidate." For most elections, the candidate becomes legally qualified when they file the necessary papers to qualify for a place on the ballot for the election in which they plan to run, or if they actively pursue an write-in candidacy for an office for which they are eligible. Until they are legally qualified, no matter how much they say they are running, their appearances do not give rise to equal opportunities. One example of this occurred years ago, when Howard Stern was campaigning for Governor of New York on his morning radio program in New York City. No equal opportunity issues arose as Stern never filed the required papers to qualify for a place on the ballot with the New York Secretary of State.
However, in Presidential elections, in addition to the usual manner of qualification, a candidate who is qualified in 10 states is deemed qualified in all states. In addition, a Presidential candidate can become "legally qualified" for purposes of the FCC rules merely by making a substantial showing of a bona fide candidacy (e.g. having a campaign headquarters, making speeches, distributing campaign literature, and issuing press releases). So, if Mr. Colbert is out in South Carolina holding campaign rallies and distributing literature in support of his candidacy, he could be deemed a legally qualified candidate before filing the necessary papers (though his recent statement on NPR's Wait Wait Don't Tell Me that his road to the Presidency ends in South Carolina may undercut the bona fides of his campaign. Perhaps that admission will be retracted when he appears on Meet the Press tomorrow). But, for the other Presidential candidates who are running in all states, participating in debates and engaging in other campaign activities, they are probably legally qualified throughout the entire country now, even though the filing of the papers for a place on the New Hampshire ballot, the first primary, are not due until early November.
Once a candidate is legally qualified, their appearance on the air, outside of a bona fide news or news interview program, requires that opposing candidates be given equal time if they request it. And, if the first candidate did not pay for the time, the opposing candidate gets the time for free. The opposing candidate can air any campaign message he or she wishes with the time that they receive. For instance, when Bill Clinton played his saxophone on the Arsenio Hall television program in 1992, George Bush could have requested equal time, and he could have run a campaign advertisement for the minute or two of time used by the Clinton appearance. Bush would not have had to play any musical instrument.
While the definition of a bona fide news program has grown in recent years (see our post, here), the employee-candidate still poses problems for broadcasters. The appearance of a candidate who is being interviewed on a bona fide new interview program is not subject to equal time obligations, as his appearance is effectively treated as a newsworthy event that a station can carry in its employee's reasonable journalistic discretion. But if a station's employee, who is conducting the interview (or reading the news, doing the weather, being a host or disc jockey on a radio program, or calling play by play of a football game) becomes a candidate for public office (Federal, state or local), then the employee's political opponents are entitled to equal opportunities, if they request those opportunities within 7 days of the appearance. So, for an employee-candidate who is on the air every day, the opponent can go back 7 days and be entitled to equal time for the amount of time that the candidate's recognizable voice or image was broadcast. So if Mr. Colbert's program aired on a broadcast station, and he became a legally qualified candidate, and one of his opponents asked for time, they could get 20 minutes or so of free time for each of his shows (when you exclude commercials, and perhaps excluding time when he interviews himself as a candidate). In the 1968 election, I believe that CBS viewed the threat of equal time so seriously that comedian Pat Paulsen was taken off the air when he got too serious with his campaign for President and actually got on the ballot in New Hampshire.
Of course, the Colbert Report does not appear on broadcast television, and there is language in the law that applies equal opportunities only to local origination cablecasting. Some read this provision to exclude network cable programs (witness the continued airing of Law and Order on cable). However, that issue has never been definitively decided by the FCC. And, even were the FCC to find that network cable did have equal time obligations, any candidate demanding equal time would surely face the wrath of the Colbert Nation. But it is funny (though perhaps not in the way Mr. Colbert intended it) how instructive one candidacy can be.